Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is a copper-containing mono-oxygenase that converts dopamine to norepinephrine in noradrenergic neurons, adrenergic neurons, and adrenal chromaffin cells. Therefore, DBH controls both norepinephrine synthesis and the dopamine/norepinephrine ratio in noradrenergic cells. All known biosynthetic enzymes for small molecule neurotransmitters are localized to and function in the cytosol, with the exception of DBH. DBH is localized inside the chromaffin granules of adrenal medullary cells and in the neurosecretory vesicles of central and peripheral neurons. DBH exists in both membrane-bound and soluble forms, the latter of which is secreted during vesicle fusion and transmitter release.
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