Renin is the initiative enzyme for the renin-angiotensin system. It is synthesized mainly in the juxta-glomerular apparatus and secreted in to the circulation in response to hypotension and hypernatremia. Renin cleaves angiotensin I (Ang I) from angiotensinogen by recognizing the [HPF]-domain on Ang I. Renin secretion by kidney is stimulated by β-adrenergic response and cAMP augmentation. The release of active renin from kidney is inhibited by increased arterial pressure or Ang II, and an increase in intracellular free calcium. Renin receptors bind with renin and prorenin to increase the catalytic activity of renin on angiotensinogen by 5–10 fold.
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