PAI-1 is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. PAI-1 inhibits fibrinolysis through its inhibition of plasminogen activator. Increased PAI-1 is linked to not only thrombosis and fibrosis, but also to obesity, and insulin resistance. Mice lacking functional PAI-1 are protected from obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma levels of PAI-1 are elevated in human obesity and insulin resistance. Obesity and obesity-related complications, including type 2 diabetes and CVD, may be modulated by PAI-1, making it an attractive therapeutic target.