Aurora kinases are closely linked to regulation of cell division and organization of mitosis. Three kinases, Aurora-A, -B and -C, have been described in mammals. In particular Aurora-A and -B are involved in organization of the centrosome and chromosomal alignment. In absence of p53, alteration of mitotic organization by overexpression of Aurora kinases leads to aneuploidy and transformation. Inhibiting Aurora-Kinase function via RNAi or kinase inhibitors led to growth inhibition and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a great variety of tumor cells. The increased expression of aurora kinases has been found in breast cancer, colon cancer, and neural malignancies. For bladder cancer in particular, its expression has been correlated with higher grade and stage.