The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is one of the major signaling cassettes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. It functions in the control of a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, embryonic development and apoptosis. The pathway takes its name from the c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1–3 (JNK1–JNK3), which are the MAPKs that interact with the final effectors. The JNK pathway is activated by a bewildering number of mechanisms. This complexity is evident by the fact that there are 13 MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) responsible for feeding information into the JNK pathway. The JNK pathway can also be activated through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using G proteins such as G12/13.
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