Monomethyl fumarate, an active metabolite of Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), is a potent GPR109A agonist. Monomethyl fumarate has the potential for multiple neuroprotective pathways and other models of retinal disease.
CAS Number: 2756-87-8
Molecular Weight: 130.10
Chemical Name: (2E)-4-methoxy-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid
Appearance: Solid Power
Purity: ≥98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)
Solubility: DMSO : 100 mg/mL (768.64 mM; Need ultrasonic).
Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical or refer to Certificate of Analysis
Storage Condition: Dry, dark and -20 oC for 1 year or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Shelf Life: ≥12 months if stored properly.
Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 oC for 1 month or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Drug Formulation: To be determined
HS Tariff Code: 382200
How to use
Monomethyl fumarate completely inhibits forskolin induced cAMP synthesis with an IC50 of 70 nM. Monomethyl fumarate induces a dose-dependent Ca2+ signal in GPR109A transfected cells with an EC50 of 9.4 μM. Monomethyl fumarate (25 μM; 24 hours) attenuates 7β-OHC-induced cytotoxicity: cell growth inhibition; decreased cell viability; mitochondrial dysfunction; and cell death induction.
A single dose of Monomethyl fumarate (50-100 mg/kg; IP) before light exposure prevents these morphologic changes (bright light exposure induced photoreceptor death) in a dose-dependent manner. Monomethyl fumarate (100 mg/kg) reduces retinal inflammation and oxidative stress. Monomethyl fumarate significantly suppresses light-induced retinopathy (LIR) upregulated genes in the NFkB pathway including: Nlrp3, Casp1, Il-1β, and Tnf-α.
- Tang H, et al. The psoriasis drug monomethylfumarate is a potent nicotinic acid receptor agonist. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Oct 31;375(4):562-5.
- Jiang D, et al. Monomethyl Fumarate Protects the Retina From Light-Induced Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 Mar 1;60(4):1275-1285.
- Sghaier R, et al. Dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate attenuate oxidative stress and mitochondrialalterations leading to oxiapoptophagy in 158N murine oligodendrocytes treated with 7β-hydroxycholesterol. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Nov;194:105432.
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