Monomethyl fumarate

Catalog No. Size PriceQuantity
M13551-2 2mg solid $80
M13551-10 10mg solid $240


Monomethyl fumarate, an active metabolite of Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), is a potent GPR109A agonist. Monomethyl fumarate has the potential for multiple neuroprotective pathways and other models of retinal disease.

Product information

CAS Number: 2756-87-8

Molecular Weight: 130.10

Formula: C5H6O4

Chemical Name: (2E)-4-methoxy-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid

Smiles: COC(=O)/C=C/C(O)=O


InChi: InChI=1S/C5H6O4/c1-9-5(8)3-2-4(6)7/h2-3H,1H3,(H,6,7)/b3-2+

Technical Data

Appearance: Solid Power

Purity: ≥98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Solubility: DMSO : 100 mg/mL (768.64 mM; Need ultrasonic).

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical or refer to Certificate of Analysis

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and -20 oC for 1 year or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Shelf Life: ≥12 months if stored properly.

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 oC for 1 month or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Drug Formulation: To be determined

HS Tariff Code: 382200

How to use

In Vitro:

Monomethyl fumarate completely inhibits forskolin induced cAMP synthesis with an IC50 of 70 nM. Monomethyl fumarate induces a dose-dependent Ca2+ signal in GPR109A transfected cells with an EC50 of 9.4 μM. Monomethyl fumarate (25 μM; 24 hours) attenuates 7β-OHC-induced cytotoxicity: cell growth inhibition; decreased cell viability; mitochondrial dysfunction; and cell death induction.

In Vivo:

A single dose of Monomethyl fumarate (50-100 mg/kg; IP) before light exposure prevents these morphologic changes (bright light exposure induced photoreceptor death) in a dose-dependent manner. Monomethyl fumarate (100 mg/kg) reduces retinal inflammation and oxidative stress. Monomethyl fumarate significantly suppresses light-induced retinopathy (LIR) upregulated genes in the NFkB pathway including: Nlrp3, Casp1, Il-1β, and Tnf-α.


  1. Tang H, et al. The psoriasis drug monomethylfumarate is a potent nicotinic acid receptor agonist. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Oct 31;375(4):562-5.
  2. Jiang D, et al. Monomethyl Fumarate Protects the Retina From Light-Induced Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 Mar 1;60(4):1275-1285.
  3. Sghaier R, et al. Dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate attenuate oxidative stress and mitochondrialalterations leading to oxiapoptophagy in 158N murine oligodendrocytes treated with 7β-hydroxycholesterol. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Nov;194:105432.

Products are for research use only. Not for human use.

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