Proguanil, an antimalarial prodrug, is metabolized to the active metabolite Cycloguanil (HY-12784). Proguanil is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor.
CAS Number: 500-92-5
Molecular Weight: 253.73
Chemical Name: 1-[N'-(4-chlorophenyl)carbamimidamido]-N-(propan-2-yl)methanimidamide
Appearance: Solid Power
Purity: ≥98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)
Solubility: DMSO : ≥ 130 mg/mL (512.36 mM).
Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical or refer to Certificate of Analysis
Storage Condition: Dry, dark and -20 oC for 1 year or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Shelf Life: ≥12 months if stored properly.
Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 oC for 1 month or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Drug Formulation: To be determined
HS Tariff Code: 382200
How to use
Proguanil per se has only weak antimalarial activity in vitro (IC50=2.4-19 μM), and its effectiveness depends on the active metabolite Cycloguanil (IC50=0.5-2.5 nM). The Cycloguanil is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor. The combination of Atovaquone and Proguanil is synergistic in vitro. Both drugs also have activity against gametocytes and pre-erythrocytic (hepatic) stages of malaria parasites. Proguanil acts as a biguanide rather than as its metabolite Cycloguanil (a parasite dihydrofolate reductase [DHFR] inhibitor) to enhance the Atovaquone effect. Proguanil-mediated enhancement is specific for Atovaquone, since the effects of other mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors, such as Myxothiazole and Antimycin, are not altered by inclusion of Proguanil. 5-HT3 receptor responses are reversibly inhibited by Proguanil, the metabolite 4-chlorophenyl-1-biguanide (CPB) and the active metabolite Cycloguanil (CG), with an IC50 of 1.81, 1.48 and 4.36 μM, respectively.
Proguanil (p.o.; 2.9 mg/kg body weight; daily for 5 days and 6 weeks respectively) shows mild degenerative changes for five days, while shows severe degenerative changes for six weeks in wistar strain albino rats. Serum testosterone level is significantly decreased for proguanil treatment rats. Administration of Malarone (atovaquone and proguanil) to experimentally B. gibsoni infected two dogs in chronic stage and three dogs in acute stage results in decrease in parasitemia, and clinical improvements are observed.
- Pudney M, et al. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride: a review of nonclinical studies. J Travel Med. 1999 May;6 Suppl 1:S8-12.
- Srivastava IK, et al. A mechanism for the synergistic antimalarial action of atovaquone and proguanil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Jun;43(6):1334-9.
- Lochner M, et al. The antimalarial drug proguanil is an antagonist at 5-HT3 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014 Dec;351(3):674-84.
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