Triapine, also known as 3-AP and OCX-191, is a synthetic heterocyclic carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone with potential antineoplastic activity. Triapine inhibits the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase, resulting in the inhibition of the conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates to deoxyribonucleotides necessary for DNA synthesis. This agent has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in vitro.
CAS Number: 143621-35-6
Molecular Weight: 195.24
Chemical Name: (E)-2-((3-aminopyridin-2-yl)methylene)hydrazinecarbothioamide
Appearance: Solid Power
Purity: ≥98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)
Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water
Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical or refer to Certificate of Analysis
Storage Condition: Dry, dark and -20 oC for 1 year or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Shelf Life: ≥12 months if stored properly.
Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 oC for 1 month or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Drug Formulation: To be determined.
HS Tariff Code: 382200
How to use
Triapine is a potent derivative of α-heterocyclic carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HCT) that inhibits hRRM2 and p53R2 isoforms of the M2 subunit.3-AP (Triapine) is thought to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase through its preformed iron chelate, rather than directly by removing iron from the active site. In cells containing less topoisomerase IIα fewer DNA strand breaks will be produced, and thus topoisomerase II poisons will be less inhibitory in the K/VP.5 cell line. The IC50s for Dp44mT growth inhibition are 48±9 nM and 60±12 nM, for K562 and K/VP.5 cells, respectively. The IC50s for 3-AP growth inhibition are 476±39 nM and 661±69 nM for K562 and K/VP.5 cells, respectively. PKIH and DpT Fe chelators show high antiproliferative activity against a range of tumor cell lines. Dp44mT shows the greatest antitumor efficacy with an IC50 that ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 μM. The average IC50 of Dp44mT over 28 cell types is 0.03±0.01 μM, which is significantly lower than that of 3-AP (Triapine; average IC50: 1.41±0.37 μM).
Triapine causes a significant increase (1.7-fold) in splenic weight when expressed as a percentage of total body weight (1.02±0.06%; n=25) compared with control mice (0.6±0.03%; n=27). In the long-term group, a significant increase in heart weight is observed after Dp44mT (0.4 mg/kg per day) (0.8±0.06%; n=4) compared with control mice (0.5±0.01%; n=6). A significant decrease in the expression of Ndrg1, TfR1, and VEGF1 in the liver is noted for Dp44mT- and 3-AP (12 mg/kg per day)-treated animals. The decreased expression could be related to the increased liver Fe in both Dp44mT- and 3-AP-treated mice.
- Martin LK, et al. A dose escalation and pharmacodynamic study of Triapine and radiation in patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Nov 15;84(4):e475-81.
- Yalowich JC, et al. The anticancer thiosemicarbazones Dp44mT and Triapine lack inhibitory effects as catalytic inhibitors or poisons of DNA topoisomerase IIα. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012 Jul 1;84(1):52-8.
- Whitnall M, et al. A class of iron chelators with a wide spectrum of potent antitumor activity that overcomes resistance to chemotherapeutics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 3;103(40):14901-6.
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