Trimethylamine N-oxide

Catalog No. size PriceQuantity
M6879-2 2mg solid $105
M6879-10 10mg solid $436


Trimethylamine N-oxide is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway.

Product information

CAS Number: 1184-78-7

Molecular Weight: 75.11

Formula: C3H9NO

Chemical Name: Trimethylamine N-oxide

Smiles: C[N+](C)(C)[O-]


InChi: InChI=1S/C3H9NO/c1-4(2,3)5/h1-3H3

Technical Data

Appearance: Solid Power.

Purity: ≥98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical or refer to Certificate of Analysis

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and -20 oC for 1 year or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Shelf Life: ≥12 months if stored properly.

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 oC for 1 month or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Drug Formulation: To be determined.

HS Tariff Code: 382200

How to use

In Vitro:

The size and migration of fibroblasts are increased after Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) treatment compared with non-treated fibroblasts in vitro. Trimethylamine N-oxide increases TGF-β receptor I expression, which promotes the phosphorylation of Smad2 and up-regulates the expression of α-SMA and collagen I. The ubiquitination of TGF-βRI is decreased in neonatal mouse fibroblasts after Trimethylamine N-oxide treatment. Trimethylamine N-oxide also inhibits the expression of smurf2. Trimethylamine N-oxide is frequently found in the tissues of a variety of marine organisms that protects against the adverse effects of temperature, salinity, high urea and hydrostatic pressure.

In Vivo:

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) contributes to cardiovascular diseases by promoting inflammatory responses. C57BL/6 mice are fed a normal diet, high-choline diet and/or 3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) diet. The levels of Trimethylamine N-oxide and choline are increased in choline-fed mice. Left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary congestion, and diastolic dysfunction are markedly exacerbated in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) mice fed high-choline diets compared with mice fed the control diet. Myocardial fibrosis and inflammation were markedly increased in HFpEF mice fed high-choline diets compared with animals fed the control diet.


  1. Wei Shuai, et al. High-choline Diet Exacerbates Cardiac Dysfunction, Fibrosis, and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. J Card Fail. 2020 May 14;S1071-9164(19)31802-0.
  2. Wenlong Yang, et al. Gut Microbe-Derived Metabolite Trimethylamine N-oxide Accelerates Fibroblast-Myofibroblast Differentiation and Induces Cardiac Fibrosis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2019 Sep;134:119-130.
  3. Manuel T Velasquez, et al. Trimethylamine N-Oxide: The Good, the Bad and the Unknown. Toxins (Basel). 2016 Nov 8;8(11):326.

Products are for research use only. Not for human use.

Payment & Security

PayPal Venmo

Your payment information is processed securely. We do not store credit card details nor have access to your credit card information.

Estimate shipping

You may also like

Recently viewed