Galeterone, also known as TOK-001 and NX41765; is an orally bioavailable small-molecule androgen receptor modulator and CYP17 lyase inhibitor with potential antiandrogen activity. Galeterone exhibits three distinct mechanisms of action: 1) as an androgen receptor antagonist, 2) as a CYP17 lyase inhibitor and 3) by decreasing overall androgen receptor levels in prostate cancer tumors, all of which may result in a decrease in androgen-dependent growth signaling.
CAS Number: 851983-85-2
Molecular Weight: 388.55
Chemical Name: (3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S)-17-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-ol
Appearance: Solid Power.
Purity: ≥98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)
Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water
Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical or refer to Certificate of Analysis
Storage Condition: Dry, dark and -20 oC for 1 year or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Shelf Life: ≥12 months if stored properly.
Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 oC for 1 month or refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Drug Formulation: To be determined.
HS Tariff Code: 382200
How to use
Galeterone (TOK-001) affords strong CYP17 lyase inhibition, with IC50 of 47 nM. Galeterone (TOK-001) is both a CYP17A1 inhibitor and androgen receptor antagonist and the similarity of these binding modes is likely the reason for this dual mechanism of action.This CYP17A1 binds abiraterone and Galeterone (TOK-001) with absorbance decreases at 402 nm and increases at 424 nm, consistent with nitrogen binding to the heme iron (type II interaction) with Kd of <100 nM. When LNCaP cells are cultured in medium supplemented with charcoal-stripped serum (CSS, T<1 nM) followed by treatment with increasing concentrations of Galeterone (TOK-001), the steady-state levels of AR protein are markedly decreased (up to 84%, 15 μM Galeterone (TOK-001)). In LAPC-4 cells, abiraterone alcohol reduced AR expression to a greater extent than Galeterone (TOK-001) at concentrations greater than or equal to 1 μM. When LNCaP cells are treated with 20 μM TOK-001 for 24 h, AR mRNA levels are reduced by 38%.
Mice inoculated with LAPC-4 tumors are treated subcutaneously with 0.15 mmol/kg of Galeterone (TOK-001) twice daily. Mice treated with TOK-001 have smaller average tumor volume on day 31 when compared to control (p= 0.0001). Galeterone (TOK-001) treatment also significantly reduces the growth rate of tumor growth compared to control (p<0.0001). Upon excision, final tumor weights are also significantly reduced in animals treated with Galeterone (TOK-001) compared to animals treated with control, and castration (p<0.05).
- Gomez L, Kovac JR, Lamb DJ. CYP17A1 inhibitors in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Steroids. 2015 Jan 3. pii: S0039-128X(14)00314-6. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2014.12.021. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25560485.
- Gupta E, Guthrie T, Tan W. Changing paradigms in management of metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC). BMC Urol. 2014 Jul 25;14:55. doi: 10.1186/1471-2490-14-55. PubMed PMID: 25062956; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4167156.
- Agarwal N, Di Lorenzo G, Sonpavde G, Bellmunt J. New agents for prostate cancer. Ann Oncol. 2014 Sep;25(9):1700-9. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdu038. Epub 2014 Mar 20. PubMed PMID: 24658665.
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