Apixaban, also known as BMS-56224701, is an anticoagulant for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events. Apixaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor. Apixaban was approved in 2012. Apixaban is indicated for the following: (1) To lower the risk of stroke and embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. (2) Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis. DVT's may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in knee or hip replacement surgery patients. (3) Treatment of both DVT and PE. (4) To reduce the risk of recurring DVT and PE after initial therapy.
Chemical Formula: C25H25N5O4
Exact Mass: 459.19065
Molecular Weight: 459.5
Elemental Analysis: C, 65.35; H, 5.48; N, 15.24; O, 13.93
Apixaban, brand name: Eliquis
InChi Code: InChI=1S/C25H25N5O4/c1-34-19-11-9-18(10-12-19)30-23-20(22(27-30)24(26)32)13-15-29(25(23)33)17-7-5-16(6-8-17)28-14-3-2-4-21(28)31/h5-12H,2-4,13-15H2,1H3,(H2,26,32)
Appearance: Solid powder
Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)
Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.
Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).
Solubility: Soluble in DMSO
Shelf Life:>2 years if stored properly
Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO
Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).
HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001
Apixaban (BMS-562247-01) prolongs the clotting times of normal human plasma with the concentrations (EC2x) of 3.6 μM, 0.37 μM, 7.4 μM, and 0.4 μM, which are required respectively to double the prothrombin time (PT), modified prothrombin time (mPT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and HepTest. Besides, Apixaban shows the highest potency in human and rabbit plasma, but less potency in rat and dog plasma in both the PT and APTT assays.
Apixaban (BMS-562247-01) shows the excellent pharmacokinetics with very low clearance (Cl: 0.02 L/kg/h), and low volume of distribution (Vdss: 0.2 L/kg) in the dogs. Besides, Apixaban also exhibits a moderate half-life (T1/2: 5.8 hours) and good oral bioavailability (F: 58%).
In the arteriovenous-shunt thrombosis (AVST), venous thrombosis (VT) and electrically mediated carotid arterial thrombosis (ECAT) rabbit models, Apixaban produces dose-dependent antithrombotic effects with EC50 of 270 nM, 110 nM and 70 nM, respectively.
Apixaban significantly inhibits factor Xa activity with IC50 of 0.22 μM in rabbit ex vivo.
In chimpanzee, Apixaban also shows small volume of distribution (Vdss: 0.17 L/kg), low systemic clearance (Cl: 0.018 L/kg/h), and good oral bioavailability (F: 59%).
Touma L, Filion KB, Atallah R, Eberg M, Eisenberg MJ. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the risk of bleeding with apixaban versus vitamin K antagonists. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Feb 15;115(4):533-41. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.11.039. Epub 2014 Dec 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 25547937.
Zalpour A, Oo TH. Clinical utility of apixaban in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism: current evidence. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014 Nov 5;8:2181-91. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S51006. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25395835; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4226443.
Hanna MS, Mohan P, Knabb R, Gupta E, Frost C, Lawrence JH. Development of apixaban: a novel anticoagulant for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014 Nov;1329:93-106. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12567. Epub 2014 Nov 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 25377080; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4260137.
Moorman ML, Nash JE, Stabi KL. Emergency surgery and trauma in patients treated with the new oral anticoagulants: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Sep;77(3):486-94; quiz 486-94. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000360. Review. PubMed PMID: 25159255.
Alotaibi G, Alsaleh K, Wu C, Mcmurtry MS. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban for extended venous thromboembolism treatment: network meta-analysis. Int Angiol. 2014 Aug;33(4):301-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 25056161.
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